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Anat Galor, William J. Feuer, David J. Lee, Hermes Florez, David Carter, William J. Prunty, Victor L. Perez; Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Dry Eye Syndrome In A Veteran Population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):3864.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To evaluate the prevalence of dry eye syndrome (DES) and its associated risk factors in a male and female veteran population.
This is a retrospective study of patients seen in the Miami and Broward Veteran Health Administration (VHA) eye clinics in the past 5 years. Patients were divided into cases and controls with regards to their dry eye status (cases included patients with an ICD9 code for DES whom received some form of dry eye therapy; controls included patients without an ICD9 code for DES whom did not receive any form of dry eye therapy). The main outcome measures were the prevalence of DES and its associated risk factors.
A total of 16,862 patients were identified as being either a dry eye case (n=2056) or control (n=14806). Overall, 12% of males and 22% of females had a diagnosis of DES, with female gender imparting a 2.40 increased risk of DES (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.04-2.81) over male gender, p<0.0001. Several medical conditions were found to increase DES risk in our population including post traumatic stress disorder (odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.75-2.23, p<0.0001), depression (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.73-2.10, p<0.0001), autoimmune conditions (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.74-2.20, p<0.0001), non-autoimmune arthritis (OR 2.23, 95% CI 2.02-2.45, p<0.0001), thyroid diseases (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.46-2.26, p<0.0001), and sleep apnea (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.97-2.46, p<0.0001) (all analyses adjusted for gender and age). The use of several systemic medications was likewise associated with an increased risk of DES including anti-depressant medications (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.79-2.17), anti-anxiety medication (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.58-1.91), and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) medications (OR 1.68, 95% 1.51-1.86).
The prevalence of DES was found to be high in both men and women in our population. Several medical diagnosis and systemic medications were found to be significantly associated with DES, with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression being important risk factors in our population.
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