April 2011
Volume 52, Issue 14
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2011
Muscarinic Receptor Specific Blockers Down Regulates Transglutaminase-2 in Experimental Myopia: Target for Myopia Treatment
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Veluchamy A. Barathi
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • J L. Kwan
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Q S. Tan
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • S R. Weon
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • W S. Lee
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • L Tong
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, DUKE-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
  • S E. Iismaa
    Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Sydney, Australia
  • J Wess
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethsda, Maryland
  • R W. Beuerman
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, DUKE-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  Veluchamy A. Barathi, Patent filing in progress (P); J. L. Kwan, Patent filing in progress (P); Q. S. Tan, Patent filing in progress (P); S. R. Weon, patent filing in progress (P); W. S. Lee, patent filing in progress (P); L. Tong, patent filing in progress (P); S. E. Iismaa, patent filing in progress (P); J. Wess, patent filing in progress (P); R. W. Beuerman, patent filing in progress (P)
  • Footnotes
    Support  NMRC/IRG/1178/2008
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2011, Vol.52, 3919. doi:
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      Veluchamy A. Barathi, J L. Kwan, Q S. Tan, S R. Weon, W S. Lee, L Tong, S E. Iismaa, J Wess, R W. Beuerman; Muscarinic Receptor Specific Blockers Down Regulates Transglutaminase-2 in Experimental Myopia: Target for Myopia Treatment. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):3919.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: : To determine the novel or target drug for myopia and also to investigate the interaction of muscarinic receptors (mAChR) and transglutaminases (TGase) during myopia development.

Methods: : Experimental myopia was induced for 6 weeks in M1-M5 knock-out (KO), TGase-2 KO and wild-type mice (30 mice from each strain) by wearing of -25D spectacle lens or diffusers over the right eyes. Left eyes were used as controls. Eye biometry was measured via AC-Master and refraction error measured by infrared photo-refraction. Murine and human scleral derived fibroblasts were cultured to passage 2 and treated to exogenous atropine or carbachol, pirenzepine, AFDX-116, himbacine, 4-DAMP, darifenacin and tropicamide at baseline, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µM for 5 days. The TGase-2 transamidase activity was measured after 5 days. Following 5 days of treatment, the total RNA and protein was extracted from these cells and RT-qPCR performed to determine transcript levels of TGM2 and western blot performed to determine protein levels of TGase-2.

Results: : M1, M4 and M5 KO axial growth was significantly 270 µm longer than the M2 and TGM-2 KO; 310 µm longer than the M3 KO. Wild-type mice axial growth was not significantly different. The refraction measurements for TGM-2, M1-M5 KO were +6.4D, -6.2 D, +6D, +6.5D, -6.5D, -6.25D respectively. The transamidase activity of endogenous cellular TGase-2 activity was reduced by antagonists’ treatment in a concentration-dependent manner in human and mouse SFs. Moreover TGase-2 activity was most significantly reduced with himbacine treatment in both cells and also with darifenacin at low concentrations. In addition, we found that in himbacine treated murine myopic eyes, TGase-2 transcript and protein were significantly reduced in sclera tissue compared to untreated eyes.

Conclusions: : These findings suggest that mAChR2, mAChR3, TGase-2 mediates myopia formation in mice and these blockers are the potential drugs for the reduction of myopia progression. Based on these results we hypothesize that TGase-2 and muscarinic receptors interaction could be involved in the sclaral remodeling or myopia development.

Keywords: myopia • extracellular matrix • sclera 

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