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Viral Sheth, Frank A. Proudlock, Anil Kumar, Sarim Mohammad, Irene Gottlob; Analysis of Iris Abnormalities in Albinism using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):4091.
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Albinism is associated with visible abnormalities of the iris such as transillumination. Recent developments in anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) now permit accurate imaging of iris anatomy. We have used AS-OCT to compare iris thicknesses of patients with albinism to healthy control subjects. We have also explored the relationship between iris thickness and iris transillumination in the albinism group.
We imaged the irides of 51 patients with albinism, diagnosis confirmed by abnormal VEP crossing, using high resolution AS-OCT. These were compared to 31 healthy control subjects. All individuals were illuminated using a bright white light source to constrict the pupils. Iris thicknesses were measured along cross sectional iris images using ImageJ software and thicknesses were averaged at 111µm intervals. Iris thicknesses were compared to clinical iris transillumination severity using the Summers classification scheme. Comparisons between groups were made using ANOVA.
Mean iris thicknesses were significantly thinner in albinism patients compared to the healthy control group (p<0.001). This difference was apparent along the whole iris profile. In thirty out of the fifty-one albinism patients iris thickness fell below the 95% confidence interval of control subjects There was no significant correlation between clinical iris transillumination severity and the iris thickness measured with AS-OCT in the albinism cohort (p<0.05).
Through the use of the AS-OCT we have shown that iris thickness is significantly reduced in albinism patients compared to the healthy controls. AS-OCT may assist in the diagnosis of albinism with 59% of iris thicknesses in albinism patients falling outside that of normal values.
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