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Falk Schroedl, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Christian Runge, Barbara Bogner, Herwig Brandtner, Guenther Grabner, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A. Reitsamer; Existence Of The Neuropeptide Alarin In The Eye Of Various Species. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):4098.
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Alarin is a lately discovered neuropeptide of the galanin peptide family with vasoconstrictor acitivity in murine skin. In the eye, ocular blood flow and aqueous humor production are essential for ocular homeostasis and a pool of intrinsic and extrinsic neuropeptides is involved to fulfill this task. Alarin might be an additional regulatory peptide in these processes.
Eyes of human (meeting the Declaration of Helsinki), mouse, and rat were processed for immunohistochemistry against alarin using affinity purified antibodies. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect alarin mRNA expression in human eyes.
Alarin-like immunoreactivity (alarin-LI) was detected in corneal epi- and endothelium of human, mouse, and rat, as well as in the conjunctiva of mouse and rat. Alarin-LI was found in the iris of all the species investigated and, in humans, was concentrated around blood vessels. All three species showed distinctive alarin-LI in the non-pigmented epithelium of the ciliary body. In the retina of mouse and rat, maximum signals were detected in the outer nulear and opticus ganglion cell layer, whereas in humans a strong alarin-LI was found around retinal blood vessels and in intrinsic choroidal neurons (ICN). Quantitative RT-PCR in human revealed higher alarin mRNA expression in the choroid than retina.
Alarin is widely distributed in the eyes of species investigated. The existence around blood vessels/ in ICN might indicate an involvement in ocular blood flow regulation. Alarin in the non-pigmented epithelium of the ciliary body might be involved in aqueous humor production.
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