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Janet R. Sparrow, Roberta Secondi, Anna M. Blonska, Jian Kong, Giovanni Staurenghi; Fundus Autofluorescence Findings in a Mouse Model of Retinal Detachment. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(14):4619.
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Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Spectralis HRA) was used to detect fundus autofluorescence (FAF) changes in a mouse model of retinal detachment (RD) using both Abc4/Abcr null mutant and wild-type mice. We correlated these findings with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), infrared reflectance (IR), fluorescence spectroscopy and histological analysis.
Retinal detachment was induced by transcleral injection of hyaluronic acid (Healon) or sterile balanced salt solution (BSS) into the subretinal space of the right eyes of 4-5 day-old albino Abca4 null mutant mice (16) and albino Abca4 wild-type (10). A modified Spectralis was used to obtain in vivo fundus autofluorescence images up to 3 months after retinal detachment was induced. Non-detached 9 months old BALB/c mice (15) were also imaged. SD-OCT and histology were performed to correlate FAF findings with structural and microscopic data. Fluorescence emission spectra were recorded from flat-mounted retinas in both RD-Abca4-/- mouse and no-RD 9-month-old BALB/c mouse.
Imaging was performed on day 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 following RD creation. In IR images, the retinal detachments presented as darkened areas within which were multiple hyperreflective spots that corresponded to punctate areas of intense autofluorescence with imaging in FAF mode. Serial FAF imaging showed that the puncta exhibited changes in fluorescence intensity with time. SD-OCT revealed undulations of the neural retina and hyper-reflectivity of the photoreceptor layer that likely corresponded to histologically visible photoreceptor cell-rosettes. Fluorescence emission spectra generated using flat-mounted retina and 488 and 561 nm excitation, were similar to that of RPE lipofuscin. With increased excitation wavelength, the emission maximum shifted towards longer wavelengths, a characteristic typical of fundus autofluorescence. Similar hyperautofluorescent spots were found in the non-detached 9 month-old BALB/c mice.
In the detached retina, the hyperautofluorescent spots appear to originate from photoreceptor outer segments. Consistent with this interpretation is the finding that the autofluorescence is spectroscopically similar to the bisretinoids of retina. Thus under the conditions of a retinal detachment, abnormal autofluorescence may arise from excessive and accelerated production of bisretinoids by impaired photoreceptor cells.
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