Purchase this article with an account.
David Gaucher, Emilie Arnault, Elisabeth Dubus, Julie Degardin, Manuel Simonutti, Tristan Bourcier, Claude Speeg-Schatz, Jose Alain Sahel, Serge Picaud; Taurine Deficiency Damages Retinal Neurones, Cone Photoreceptors And Retinal Ganglion Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):5436.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
In the 80s,taurine deficiency was reported to induce photoreceptor degeneration in cats and rats. Recently we found that taurine deficiency contributes to the retinal toxicity of vigabatrin, an antiepileptic drug. However, in this toxicity, retinal ganglion cells (RGC) were degenerating in parallel to cone photoreceptors. The aim of this study was to re-assess a classic mouse model of taurine deficiency following a treatment with guanidoethane sulfonate (GES), a taurine transporter inhibitor to determine if retinal ganglion cells are also affected
Taurine deficiency was induced by two months of GES oral treatment (0.1%) in 8 BALB / cJRj mice. Electroretinography (ERG), angiographic examinations using a scanning laser ophtalmoscope (SLO) and immunohistological studies were performed after treatment in GES mice and in 15 age-matched control mice.
GES treatment for 2 months induced a significant reduction in the taurine plasma levels and a lower weight increase. At the functional level, photopic electroretinograms were significantly reduced indicating a dysfunction in the cone pathway. A change in the autofluorescence appearance of the eye fundus was explained on histological sections by a increase autofluorescence of the retinal pigment epithelium. Although the general morphology of the retina was not affected, cell lesion was indicated by the general increase in GFAP expression. When cell quantification was achieved on retinal sections, the number of outer/inner segments of cone photoreceptors was reduced (19%) to the same amount as retinal ganglion cells (20%) (p<0.05). An abnormal synaptic plasticity of rod bipolar cell dendrites was also observed in GES treated mice.
These results indicate that taurine deficiency can not only lead to photoreceptor degeneration but also retinal ganglion cell loss. Cone photoreceptor and retinal ganglion cells appear as the most sensitive cells to taurine deficiency. These results may explain the recent therapeutic interest of taurine in retinal degenerative pathologies, especially diabetic retinopathy.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only