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Farhan F. Malik, Atif Z. Mohiuddin, Lamise Z. Rajjoub, David A. Belyea, Jeevan R. Mathura, Jr.; 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(14):6373.
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Vitamin D has received attention in recent years for its associations with a variety of health conditions. There is limited information in the literature regarding vitamin D levels and ocular disease. Darker pigmented individuals have documented lower serum Vitamin D levels, and black patients are at higher risk of developing primary open-angle glaucoma. Our aim is to compare 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels in POAG patients to controls, and to examine if there is a difference overall or when subcategorized by race.
Retrospective chart review was performed of 364 patients with POAG over the past 5 years with serum 25-OH vitamin D levels taken during that time. 25-OH vitamin D levels were compared with an age-, race-and gender-matched control group of 154 ophthalmology patients without glaucoma. In patients with multiple levels, the earliest was used in an attempt to obtain levels taken before supplementation was initiated. Exclusion criteria included 500 IU or greater daily dose of Vitamin D and patients with primary parathyroid disease.
The mean age in the POAG group was 70.8 years, 64.4% were female, 64.2% were black and 28.6% were white. There was no significant difference in mean 25-OH Vitamin D levels in patients in the overall POAG group (22.5 ng/mL) compared with the age-, gender- and race-matched control group (23.0), p=0.681. When subcategorized by race, black patients with POAG had significantly a higher mean level, 21.39, compared to 18.75 in the control group (p=0.0432). White patients had a mean level of 27.62 in the study group and 29.08 in the control group (p=0.552).
Considering that darker pigmented populations have lower serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels and that black patients have a higher incidence of POAG, our study hypothesis was that low serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels may be associated with a higher risk of POAG. However, our study showed no significant difference in mean levels in our overall study population of POAG patients vs. controls. In fact, our study demonstrates that black patients with POAG have a higher mean level than the black subpopulation of control patients without glaucoma. Additional study is needed to identify if 25-hydroxy Vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma.
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