April 2011
Volume 52, Issue 14
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2011
Prevalence of Refractive Errors in a Large European Population: The GHS (Gutenberg Heart Study) Eye Survey
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Norbert Pfeiffer
    Ophthalmology,
    University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Christian Wolfram
    Ophthalmology,
    University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • René Hoehn
    Ophthalmology,
    University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Esther M. Hoffmann
    Ophthalmology,
    University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Julia Lamparter
    Ophthalmology,
    University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Ulrike Kottler
    Ophthalmology,
    University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Max Adler
    Ophthalmology,
    University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Stefan Blankenberg
    Medicine II,
    University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Philipp Wild
    Medicine II,
    University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Alireza Mirshahi
    Ophthalmology,
    University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  Norbert Pfeiffer, None; Christian Wolfram, None; René Hoehn, None; Esther M. Hoffmann, None; Julia Lamparter, None; Ulrike Kottler, None; Max Adler, None; Stefan Blankenberg, None; Philipp Wild, None; Alireza Mirshahi, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  Boehringer Ingelheim provided an unrestricted grant with respect to the Gutenberg Heart Study.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2011, Vol.52, 2506. doi:
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      Norbert Pfeiffer, Christian Wolfram, René Hoehn, Esther M. Hoffmann, Julia Lamparter, Ulrike Kottler, Max Adler, Stefan Blankenberg, Philipp Wild, Alireza Mirshahi; Prevalence of Refractive Errors in a Large European Population: The GHS (Gutenberg Heart Study) Eye Survey. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):2506.

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Abstract

Purpose: : To evaluate the distribution of refractive errors in a large German sample.

Methods: : The GHS Eye Survey is a population-based, prospective, observational single-center study in the Rhein-Main-Region in western Mid-Germany with a total of nearly 15000 participants. A study sample of 5000 participants was the base for this analysis. They underwent a standardized protocol with a comprehensive questionnaire, a thorough ophthalmic examination, and a complete general examination focused on cardiovascular parameters. Refractive errors were determined by an automatic refraction device (Humphrey® HARK 599TM) with the following definitions: myopia < -0.5 diopters (D), hyperopia > +0.5 D, astigmatism >0.5 cylinder D and anisometropia: >1.0 D difference in spherical equivalent between the eyes. Exclusion criteria were previous cataract or refractive surgery.

Results: : 4598 subjects were evaluable. 23 had previous refractive surgery and 184 previous cataract surgery. Errors ranged from -21.5 to +13.88 spherical diopters. Myopia was present in 35.0%, hyperopia in 32.4%, astigmatism in 31.5% and anisometropia in 12.9% and rangend up to 20 D. The prevalence of myopia decreased with age, the prevalence of hyperopia (as well as astigmatism and anisometropia) increased with age. Myopia was more common in men and hyperopia in women. 2.6% of the study sample had no refractive correction for their ametropia defined as hyperopia >+0.5 D or myopia <-0.5 D.

Conclusions: : Refractive errors affect the majority of this sample. The GHS-Eye survey sample is more myopic than samples in other epidemiological studies. This randomly selected sample will provide substantial epidemiologic data including age-associated changes in refractive error upon recall after 5 years time.

Keywords: clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: prevalence/incidence • myopia • hyperopia 
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