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Norbert Pfeiffer, Christian Wolfram, René Hoehn, Esther M. Hoffmann, Julia Lamparter, Ulrike Kottler, Max Adler, Stefan Blankenberg, Philipp Wild, Alireza Mirshahi; Prevalence of Refractive Errors in a Large European Population: The GHS (Gutenberg Heart Study) Eye Survey. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):2506.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To evaluate the distribution of refractive errors in a large German sample.
The GHS Eye Survey is a population-based, prospective, observational single-center study in the Rhein-Main-Region in western Mid-Germany with a total of nearly 15000 participants. A study sample of 5000 participants was the base for this analysis. They underwent a standardized protocol with a comprehensive questionnaire, a thorough ophthalmic examination, and a complete general examination focused on cardiovascular parameters. Refractive errors were determined by an automatic refraction device (Humphrey® HARK 599TM) with the following definitions: myopia < -0.5 diopters (D), hyperopia > +0.5 D, astigmatism >0.5 cylinder D and anisometropia: >1.0 D difference in spherical equivalent between the eyes. Exclusion criteria were previous cataract or refractive surgery.
4598 subjects were evaluable. 23 had previous refractive surgery and 184 previous cataract surgery. Errors ranged from -21.5 to +13.88 spherical diopters. Myopia was present in 35.0%, hyperopia in 32.4%, astigmatism in 31.5% and anisometropia in 12.9% and rangend up to 20 D. The prevalence of myopia decreased with age, the prevalence of hyperopia (as well as astigmatism and anisometropia) increased with age. Myopia was more common in men and hyperopia in women. 2.6% of the study sample had no refractive correction for their ametropia defined as hyperopia >+0.5 D or myopia <-0.5 D.
Refractive errors affect the majority of this sample. The GHS-Eye survey sample is more myopic than samples in other epidemiological studies. This randomly selected sample will provide substantial epidemiologic data including age-associated changes in refractive error upon recall after 5 years time.
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