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Mark S. Borchert, Rohit Varma, Kristina Tarczy-Hornoch, Susan Cotter, Roberta Mckean-Cowdin, Stanley Azen, James M. Tielsch, David S. Friedman, Michael X. Repka, Joanne Katz; Risk factors for hyperopia and myopia in preschool children: The Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and the Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):2507.
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To describe the socio-demographic and biological risk factors associated with hyperopia and myopia among children aged 6 to 72 months in a population-based cross-sectional study.
Preschool African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White children (n=9770) from contiguous census tracts in Los Angeles, California and Baltimore, Maryland were administered comprehensive eye examinations including a cycloplegic refraction. Socio-demographic information was obtained from parental questionnaires. Potential biological and socio-demographic risk factors associated with hyperopia (≥ +2.00 diopters) and myopia (≤-1.00 diopters) were explored using multivariate logistic regression.
Compared to non-Hispanic whites, African-American (OR: 6.2) and Hispanic (OR: 3.7) children were more likely to be myopic. Children aged 6-35 months were more likely to be myopic compared to those 60-72 months of age (OR: ≥1.6). Compared to African-American children, non-Hispanic white (OR: 1.61) and Hispanic (OR: 1.51) children were more likely to be hyperopic. Children whose parents had health insurance (OR: 1.5) and had a history of maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR: 1.4) were more likely to have hyperopia
Children in specific racial/ethnic groups and age groups are at higher risk of having myopia and hyperopia. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a preventable condition that may reduce the risk of hyperopia in these children. Given that both myopia and hyperopia are risk factors for the development of amblyopia and strabismus, these risk indicators should be considered when developing guidelines for screening and intervention in preschool children.
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