Purchase this article with an account.
Fan Xiang, Ian G. Morgan, Wayne Smith, Kathryn A. Rose, Mingguang He; Design, Methodology and One Year Data From a Trial for Preventing Myopia With Increased Time Outdoors: the Guangzhou Outdoor Activity Longitudinal (GOAL) Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):3057.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The Guangzhou Outdoor Activity Longitudinal (GOAL) Study is a school-based trial of the effectiveness of increasing time spent outdoors in preventing the development and progression of myopia in urban Chinese children.
In this school-based study, Grade 1 children aged 6.6 years (±0.34) from 12 primary schools in Guangzhou were enrolled, with 6 in the control arm and 6 in the intervention arm. Schools in the control and intervention arms were matched in pairs on the basis of the change in visual acuity in the schools measured in previous years by the Ministry of Education. Schools were asked to add one hour of scheduled time outdoors to the school day, and information campaigns encouraged parents to engage their children in outdoor pursuits. Background demographic data were collected prior to the baseline visit, and data on physical and ocular examinations, academic performance, near-work and outdoor activities will be collected annually over the three-year follow-up period.
Of the 1789 children enrolled, 889 (49.7%) were in the intervention group and 832 (46.5%) were girls. 1557 (87.03%) students underwent cycloplegic refraction in the baseline visit. In these students, the mean spherical equivalent refractive error in the right eyes was 1.25±0.79 Diopters (D) for boys and 1.33 (±0.78) D for girls. The mean axial length was 22.90±0.65 mm for boys and 22.32±0.60 mm for girls in the right eyes. After one year, statistically significant reductions in myopic progression (-0.25±0.42 vs. -0.34±0.46 D) and axial elongation (0.29±0.18 vs. 0.33±0.23 mm) were observed in the intervention group, but the changes were not clinically significant.
The design, methodology and baseline data of the GOAL study are reported. One year data show statistically significant reductions in myopic progression and axial elongation, but the changes were clinically insignificant at this stage. It is anticipated that around 20% of students in the control group will become myopic over the next two years, and the impact of the intervention on incidence and progression of myopia will be further monitored.
Clinical Trial: :
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only