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Young Sam Kwon, Jai Soon Park, Sung Ho Yun, Sae Kwang Ku, Kwang Ho Jang; A Dog Dry Eye Model Induced By Benzalkonium Chloride. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):3765.
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To establish a dog dry eye model induced by topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAC).
Twenty healthy adult male Beagle dogs were used. A sterile distilled water (control group), 0.1% BAC, 0.2% BAC and 0.4% BAC eye drops were applied four times daily for 2 weeks. Schirmer tear test, fluorescein and rose bengal staining were performed on days 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14. The dogs were euthanized on day 14. Hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid Schiff (PAS), and immunohistochemical stainings were performed to evaluate general histopathology, number of goblet cells and the patterns of TNF-α, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 expressions.
Schirmer scores of 0.4% BAC treared eye were significantly lower than control group on days 3, 7, 10, 14 (p<0.05). Fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores were significantly increased in 0.4% BAC treated group compared with control group on days 3, 7, 10, and 14 (p<0.05). In the histological examination, the thickness of damaged corneal and conjuctival epithelial layers and the number of goblet cells of conjunctiva were markedly decreased in 0.4% BAC treated eyes. In addition, the numbers of inflammatory cells, TNF-α, caspase-3, and PARP positive cells were significantly increased in 0.4% BAC treated ocular surface tissues (p<0.05).
The results of this study suggest that topical application of 0.4% BAC eye drops induced a dry eye in dogs with decreased tear secretion, damage of ocular surface and promotion of its inflammatory and apoptotic processes.
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