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Alireza Mirshahi, René Hoehn, Esther M. Hoffmann, Christian Wolfram, Ulrike Kottler, Stefan Blankenberg, Philipp S. Wild, Dagmar Laubert-Reh, Max Adler, Norbert Pfeiffer; Distribution of Intraocular Pressure and its Association with Ocular Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Large European Population: The GHS (Gutenberg Heart Study) - Eye Survey. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):5022. doi: https://doi.org/.
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To provide data on the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its association with ocular features and cardiovascular risk factors in a large German sample.
The GHS Eye Survey is a population-based, prospective, observational single-center study in the Rhein-Main-Region in western Mid-Germany with a total of nearly 15000 participants. The study sample is stratified for decades of age, gender and residence; age was 35 - 74 years at enrolment. All undergo a standardized protocol with a comprehensive questionnaire, an ophthalmic examination including slitlamp biomicroscopy, non-contact tonometry, fundus photography, central corneal thickness measurement and visual field testing, and a complete general examination focused on cardiovascular parameters. A study sample of 5000 was the base for this analysis. Participants with a history of ocular surgery or under IOP lowering medication were excluded from evaluation.
Of the 4335 eligible subjects the mean (±SD) IOP of both eyes was 14.0 ±2.6 mmHg, in right eyes 13.9 ±2.7 mmHg and in left eyes 14.0 ±2.7 mmHg. The mean IOP in men (n=2216) and in women (n=2119) was 14.1 ±2.7 mmHg and 13.9 ±2.5 mmHg with a significant intersex difference (p=0.009). Positive associations with IOP were found with brown iris color, central corneal thickness, hypertension, diabetes, smoking (only men), obesity, dyslipidemia, body mass index, weight, hip size (only women), waist circumference and waist-hip-ratio. Age, spherical equivalent, wearing glasses or contact lenses, height and body temperature had no association with IOP.
The distribution of IOP in this sample had a lower mean IOP compared to similar study populations. Correlation analyses with several ocular and systemic characteristics strengthened a subgroup with a history of positive cardiovascular risk factors, in particular components of the metabolic syndrome, and supported already reported associations with IOP having a higher risk of elevated IOP.
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