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Asim V. Farooq, Min-Jung Kim, Arpeet Shah, Mohamed Ali, Ghadah Karasneh, Deepak Shukla; Determining A Role For Syndecan-1 In Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Corneal Infection. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):5799.
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The cornea is an important target for herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection. The goals of our work were to determine the expression of syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, in the corneal epithelium, as well as assess expression patterns during HSV-1 infection.
Organotypically cultured porcine corneas were infected with purified HSV-1 K26GFP. Histological sections fixed after up to 12 hours of infection were stained for syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Control sections were stained at the same time points as above. Expression of syndecan-1 was also assessed in the cornea culture model using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Subsequent studies of syndecan-1 expression were performed in the human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE) using RT-PCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry.
There was positive immunohistochemical staining in the epithelium of corneal sections for syndecan-1, with some accentuation near the basal surface. At the time points of the study, increases in syndecan-1 expression were noted in the infected corneal epithelium compared to control, with the most dramatic increase in the basal epithelium. This pattern was confirmed with Western blotting, while a statistically insignificant increase was noted by RT-PCR. Investigations of syndecan-1 expression in infected HCE cells showed increased expression by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and flow cytometry.
HSV-1 infection of porcine corneal tissue and HCE appears to correlate with an increase in syndecan-1 expression at early time points. This may play a role in corneal pathogenesis given the many signaling functions served by syndecan-1.
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