April 2011
Volume 52, Issue 14
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2011
Title: The Effects Of Multifocal Lenses On Experimental Emmetropization In Young Chicks After Ciliary Nerve Section (cnx) And Iridectomy (id)
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Yue (Maria) Liu
    Vision Science, Univ of CA, Berkeley Sch of Optometry, Berkeley, California
  • Christine F. Wildsoet
    Center for Ocul Disease & Dvlpmt, Univ of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  Yue (Maria) Liu, None; Christine F. Wildsoet, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH K12 EY 017296 to YL & NIH R01 EY12392 to CW
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2011, Vol.52, 6295. doi:
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      Yue (Maria) Liu, Christine F. Wildsoet; Title: The Effects Of Multifocal Lenses On Experimental Emmetropization In Young Chicks After Ciliary Nerve Section (cnx) And Iridectomy (id). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):6295.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract
 
Purpose:
 

We previous reported results from studies using 2-zone spectacle lenses fitted to chicks to study this regulation. As a follow-up to these studies, we combined this lens design with two types of surgery, i.e., CNX, which produces a fixed dilated pupil and eliminates accommodation, and ID, which provides a fixed enlarged optical aperture with minimal effect on accommodation.

 
Methods:
 

Unilateral CNX or ID was performed on young chicks 5 days prior to fitting the same eyes with 2-zone spectacle lenses, which were worn for 5 days from 17 days of age. The study used four 2-zone concentric lens designs as follows: (i) +5D center (+5C), (ii) +5 D periphery (+5P), (iii) -5 D center (-5C), (iv) -5 D peripheral (-5P), with plano in periphery for all C-designs and in the center for all P-designs. Central zone diameters (CZD) of 3.5 and 6.5 mm were tested.

 
Results:
 

Neither CNX nor ID alone significantly affected refractive error and vitreous chamber depth although the surgeries lead to increased variability compared to that observed in nonS eyes. Both SV lenses (-5 & +5 D), and 2-zone-3.5 mm CZD lenses induced similar on-axis refractive changes in CNX and ID eyes to those in nonS eyes. In contrast, both surgeries significantly affected refractive error outcomes for all four 2-zone-6.5 mm CZD lenses. Despite their strong influence on on-axis refractive error changes in lenses with 6.5 CZD, the surgeries did not significantly alter changes in relative peripheral refractive errors (RPR). Nontheless, both the change in on-axis refractive error and lens design significant influenced RPR.

 
Conclusions:
 

CNX and ID surgeries both increase the optical aperture of the eye, and CNX also eliminates accommodation yet induced similar responses to 2-zone spectacle lenses, which differ from the responses of normal eyes only when the CZD is large. Changes in the pattern of optical defocus experienced at on- and/or off-axis retinal regions in the presence of multifocal lenses with large central optical zones are a plausible explanation for these results.  

 
Keywords: emmetropization • myopia • iris 
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