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M. W. Swanson; Macular Degeneration and Urinary Cadmium Level. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):265.
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Data files from the 2005-2006 NHANES were obtained. A case control study was designed evaluating the association of macular degeneration to urinary cadmium levels and serum cotinine, a nicotine metabolite. SUDAAN software was used for analysis taking into account the complex sample design of the NHANES.
Detectable levels of cadmium were found in 90% of the population. Macular degeneration was reported in 4.2 % over age 40 and 8.1 % of the population over 65. Urinary cadmium was associated with serum cotinine levels(p <.001) ; however, in univariate analysis no association was found with between macular degeneration and the presence of cadmium above the detecable threshold level(p=.11). Increasing exposure quartile levels of cadmium was also not associated with macular degeneration. (p=.23).
Urinary cadmium, thought to be a measure of total body load of cadmium, was not associated with self report of macular degeneration.
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