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A. Geirsdottir, F. Jonasson, D. Cairns, I. Lengyel, A.-M. Cairns, H. Sasaki, T. Peto; Twelve-Year Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in the Reykjavik Eye Study and Initial Characterization of Wide Field Images. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):269.
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To establish 12-year incidence of late AMD in the Reykjavik Eye Study and to correlate central and peripheral pathologies.
The Reykjavik Eye study includes a random sample from the Reykjavik population census 50 years and older in 1996, where 1045 persons participated (75% response rate), all having an eye examination and stereo fundus photography using films. In 2008, the examination was repeated on 573 of the initial participants, i.e. 71.4% of the 801 survivors. In the present study, we added scanning laser ophthalmoscope wide field (200°) color and autofluorescence images using OPTOMAP (Optos®).
Mean age of participants was 72 years (SD 7.5). In 1996, six persons had exudative AMD. In 2008, five of them were deceased and one did not participate. In 1996, 29 persons had pure geographic atrophy. In 2008, eighteen persons were deceased and five did not participate. Of those six persons that participated, two had developed exudative disease. Preliminary results suggest that further two persons developed pure geographic atrophy and five persons exudative AMD during the 12 years. On wide field imaging, persons with geographic atrophy were found to have considerable amount of pigmentary abnormalities and drusen in the periphery.
Twelve-year incidence of late AMD is 1.2% (95% confidence interval 0.3-2.1). Two-third of persons with late AMD at baseline had died during the twelve years. At least 18% of the survivors diagnosed with geographic atrophy in 1996 had developed exudative AMD at 12 years. Regarding geographic atrophy, the lack of stereopsis in digital images is compensated for by the autofluorescent images. Wide field images revealed considerable pathological changes at the periphery in AMD patients, including pigment epithelial abnormalities and drusen deposition. These changes may be relevant for phenotyping of the disease progression.
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