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S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Xu, J. Schuman; Correcting Vessel Discontinuities from Eye Movement in Retinal Three-Dimensional (3D) Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) Images. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):1098.
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3D SD-OCT provides rich volumetric retinal image data that may add clinically useful insight on various situations. However, eye movement during imaging makes the data disintegrated, often noted as blood vessel discontinuities. Our goal was to develop a fully automated scheme for correcting eye movement artifacts in 3D SD-OCT images.
3D raster scan centered on the optic disc was performed on 24 healthy and 58 glaucomatous eyes using SD-OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA; Software version 3.0; Optic Disc Cube 200x200 scan pattern), which simultaneously captured scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images of the subjects’ retina. All SD-OCT data included contained visible vessel discontinuities. 3D SD-OCT data were matched to SLO images by applying a multi-scale non-rigid deformation. Local refinement using dynamic time warping corrects vessel discontinuities. For validation, three OCT experts independently scored the corrected 3D OCT data by rating retinal vessel continuity and the overall match with the SLO images (1: improved; 0: no change; -1: degraded). Disagreement between experts was resolved by averaging.
The experts’ assessments were subjective, resulting in occasional disagreement (Fleiss’ kappa = 0.3795). After averaging the three scores, vessel continuity was improved in 71% of healthy and 60% of glaucomatous eyes, while the match between 3D SD-OCT and SLO image was improved in 88% of healthy and 79% of glaucomatous eyes. The software was most effective at correcting discontinuities in major vessels outside the optic disc resulting from horizontal microsaccades.
The developed fully automated software is effective at correcting eye movement artifacts in 3D SD-OCT images, particularly removing vessel discontinuities.
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