April 2009
Volume 50, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2009
The Distance Randot® Stereotest Test: Normative Data and Validity
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • E. E. Birch
    Pediatric Eye Research Lab, Retina Foundation of Southwest, Dallas, Texas
    Ophthalmology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas
  • J. Wang
    Pediatric Eye Research Lab, Retina Foundation of Southwest, Dallas, Texas
  • S. R. Hatt
    Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
  • A. R. O'Connor
    Orthoptics, University of Liverpool, Liverpol, United Kingdom
  • J. R. Drover
    Psychology, Memorial University, St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
  • J. M. Holmes
    Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  E.E. Birch, Stereo Optical Corporation, F; J. Wang, Stereo Optical Corporation, F; S.R. Hatt, Stereo Optical Corporation, F; A.R. O'Connor, Stereo Optical Corporation, F; J.R. Drover, Stereo Optical Corporation, F; J.M. Holmes, Stereo Optical Corporation, F.
  • Footnotes
    Support  EY05EY05236 (EEB) and EY015799 (JMH)
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2009, Vol.50, 2886. doi:
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      E. E. Birch, J. Wang, S. R. Hatt, A. R. O'Connor, J. R. Drover, J. M. Holmes; The Distance Randot® Stereotest Test: Normative Data and Validity. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):2886.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: : Distance stereoacuity data may be useful in assessing strabismic patients who have differences in the distance and near angle of deviation, including intermittent XT. We developed the Distance Randot® Stereotest as an easily administered quantitative test for distance stereoacuity in children as young as four years of age. Using a prototype, we previously reported extensive testability, validity, and normative data. Here we report normative and validity data for the final, commercially available version of the test.

Methods: : The Distance Randot® is a Polaroid vectographic book, presenting 2 shapes at each of 4 disparities: 400, 200, 100, and 60 arcsec viewed at 3m through polarizing glasses. The smallest disparity level at which the child can identify both shapes is recorded as stereoacuity. We administered the Distance Randot® to 31 normal volunteers (4-36 y) and 39 strabismic patients (4-73 y). The prototype distance stereoacuity test was also administered. Test-retest data were collected for the final version of the test.

Results: : Normative Distance Randot® scores were similar to those obtained with the prototype; 96.8% of normal scores were ≤100 arcsec. Test-retests were identical in 71% and within one disparity level in 96.8%. Among strabismic patients, 79.5% had abnormal Distance Randot® scores; the few with normal scores had incomitant or intermittent deviations. Nil stereoacuity was found in 22 patients and confirmed in 90.9% of retests; 17 had measureable stereoacuity, confirmed in 91.4% of retests. Patients with constant ET or XT (n=16) were more likely to have nil stereoacuity than patients who had intermittent ET or XT (n=15)(100% vs 20%; z=7.75, p<0.001). Overall, Distance Randot® scores were highly correlated with prototype scores (rs = 0.90, p<0.001).

Keywords: binocular vision/stereopsis • strabismus 

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