April 2009
Volume 50, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2009
Ocular Hemorrhage in Single, Rapid Rotational Events
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • G. Binenbaum
    Ophthalmology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • B. Coats
    Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • R. L. Peiffer
    Ophthalmology, Scheie Eye Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • B. J. Forbes
    Ophthalmology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • S. S. Margulies
    Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  G. Binenbaum, None; B. Coats, None; R.L. Peiffer, None; B.J. Forbes, None; S.S. Margulies, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH EY01539 , NIH R01-NS39679
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2009, Vol.50, 3182. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      G. Binenbaum, B. Coats, R. L. Peiffer, B. J. Forbes, S. S. Margulies; Ocular Hemorrhage in Single, Rapid Rotational Events. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):3182.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: : Pediatric abusive head trauma is characterized by intracranial and/or retinal hemorrhages (RH). Mechanisms of traumatic brain injury have been elucidated through carefully controlled animal models, but no such model exists for RH. In the preliminary stages of developing a pediatric rotational acceleration-deceleration model of RH, we sought to characterize ocular hemorrhages in neonatal piglets resulting from rotations of the head.

Methods: : 3-5 day old anesthetized piglets (n=35) underwent a single, rapid (160-200 rad/s) head rotation in sagittal (n=6), coronal (n=2), or horizontal (n=27) planes; 5 additional piglets were controls. Six hours post injury the animals were euthanized and perfusion fixed. Brains and eyes were harvested for gross and histologic examination, evaluated by masked neuro- and ocular pathologists.

Results: : Ocular hemorrhage was found in 69% of animals. Intraocular hemorrhage was primarily located near the vitreous base (66% of animals had ciliary body hemorrhage, 9% had peripheral RH). Hemorrhages were also found in the anterior chamber (11%), or optic nerve (disc 9%, nerve sheath 51%). Animals undergoing a rapid horizontal head rotation had a significantly higher occurrence of ciliary body hemorrhage than coronal or sagittal. All but one animal had large collections of subdural blood, but that animal still had ciliary body hemorrhage. Controls had no ocular or intracranial injuries.

Conclusions: : Optic nerve and ciliary body hemorrhages were common in single rapid rotations of the piglet head. Intraocular hemorrhages were located primarily in regions of strong vitreous attachment in the pig. This preliminary model involved a single high velocity rotation to the head; future studies with this model will investigate the effect of low velocity cyclic head motion (shaking) on ocular hemorrhages.

Keywords: trauma • retina • infant vision 

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