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F. Mo, A. D. Proia, K. Lashkari; Interferon Gamma-Inducible Protein 10 (IP-10) and Eotaxin Are Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):3753.
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The role of cytokines in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has not been well understood. We have analyzed cytokines from sera of patients with different stages of AMD and selected IP-10 and eotaxin for further analysis. We also investigated the ocular expression of IP-10 and eotaxin in the postmortem tissues from donors with AMD diseases.
AMD patients with the following 4 phenotypes (n= 20/group) were recruited into the study: early AMD (AREDS stage 1), intermediate AMD (AREDS stage 3) and advanced AMD with geographic atrophy (GA), or choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Subjects with no clinical phenotype or family history of AMD were selected as controls. Blood samples were withdrawn and processed using a Bio-plex system. Post-mortem tissues from patients with AMD or no history of AMD were collected, staged and processed. IP-10 and eotaxin expression in ocular tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using the ABC staining system.
Serum IP-10 concentrations were significantly elevated from 1.5 to 3 fold in all stages of AMD. IP-10 reached its peak at AREDS stage 3. Serum eotaxin levels were increased in AREDS stage 3 and GA. For elevated IP-10, the odds ratios of AREDS stage 1, stage 3, GA and CNV to control were 8, 36, 11 and 2.75 respectively. The odds ratios for elevated eotaxin were 1.5, 6.8, 4.5 and 1.7 respectively. IHC showed that in AMD tissue IP-10 was detected in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In control eyes, IP-10 was weakly detected in GCL and absent in RPE. In AREDS stage 1, IP-10 expression was only increased in GCL. The highest expression of IP-10 in GCL and RPE were detected in AREDS stage 3. IP-10 detection was low in cases of GA but remained high in RPE of eyes with CNV. Eotaxin expression in ocular tissues was poorly observed.
Serum concentrations of IP-10 and eotaxin are significantly increased in AMD patients. The temporal and spatial expressions of IP-10 in ocular tissues suggest that IP-10 is associated with progression of AMD.
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