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N. Farah, I. Reutsky, L. Golan, S. Shoham; Holographic Dynamic Control of Neuronal Populations in the Retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):4225.
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Development and in-vitro implementation of a novel projection/excitation strategy that can be used to selectively control large retinal neuronal populations, with high temporal precision (msec) and efficient use of light power.
Of existing display technologies, digital holographic projection ideally meets these constraints, because the use of phase-modulating spatial light modulators (SLMs) and light diffraction allows an efficient use of input light. Our system directs light from Blue, Green and Red DPSS Lasers onto a Ferroelectric liquid crystal SLM that displays binary holograms. Light patterns were coupled into the camera port of an inverted microscope and projected onto retinas, whose responses were measured using a Multi-Electrode Array (MEA).
We demonstrate for the first time responses of a population of retinal ganglion cells to patterns of light holographically projected unto wild-type and ChannerhodopsinII transfected retinas. The neurons exhibit spatially-selective responses and have effective receptive fields. We demonstrate sub-millisecond timescale control over the projected light patterns, multi-wavelength excitation, and computational strategies that eliminate the effect of speckle.
High-rate holographic projection was demonstrated as an enabling photo-stimulation modality towards the development of a retina neuro-prosthetic, theoretically capable of eliciting over 1 million spikes per second, with millisecond timing precision. Our system can also be applied in experimental studies of the visual system requiring ultra-high-rate stimulus control.
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