April 2009
Volume 50, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2009
Eyebrow and Eyelid Dimensions: An Anthropometric Analysis of African Americans and Caucasians
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • K. M. Price
    Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
  • P. K. Gupta
    Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
  • J. A. Woodward
    Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
  • S. S. Stinnett
    Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
  • A. P. Murchison
    Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  K.M. Price, None; P.K. Gupta, None; J.A. Woodward, None; S.S. Stinnett, None; A.P. Murchison, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  None.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2009, Vol.50, 4828. doi:
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      K. M. Price, P. K. Gupta, J. A. Woodward, S. S. Stinnett, A. P. Murchison; Eyebrow and Eyelid Dimensions: An Anthropometric Analysis of African Americans and Caucasians. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):4828.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: : Obtain measurements of eyelid and eyebrow dimensions in African American and Caucasian adults to evaluate differences between race, age, and gender.

Methods: : 89 African American and 75 Caucasian subjects between age 20 and 80 years were included in this prospective, cross-sectional cohort study. Subjects were divided by gender into three, 20-year incremental age cohorts. Measurements of palpebral fissure height (PFH), palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure inclination (AX), pretarsal skin height (PTSH), crease height (CH), eyebrow height (EH), eyebrow apex inclination (AA), and distance of the brow apex from the lateral corneal limbus (AD) were taken from standardized photographs. Mean values by race, age, and gender were compared using linear mixed modeling (LMM). Double lid crease prevalence was also evaluated.

Results: : A significant difference was found between races for PFW, PTSH and CH in males, and for EH in both males and females. A significant difference between genders was found for PFH, PFW, PTSH, and CH in whites, for AX, EH, and AD in both whites and blacks, and for AA in blacks. Significant differences were also found between age cohorts for PFH in black females, and for EH in black males. 37% of African Americans had a double lid crease versus 15% of Caucasians.

Conclusions: : Race, gender and age differences exist for certain eyelid and eyebrow positions. These factors can impact surgical decision-making and thus highlight the need for an individualized approach to patients.

Keywords: eyelid • face perception • aging 

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