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C. Varesi, D. Di Pierro, A. Feraco, A. Spanò, C. Nucci, R. Mancino; Oxidative Stress and Total Anti-Oxidant Capacity (orac) in Diabetic Patients: Preliminary Report. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):4995.
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To analyze the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress parameter, and the total antioxidant capacity in the blood, aqueous humor, and vitreous body of diabetic patients.
Eight patients, aged 60-84 years, with diabetic proliferative retinopathy and eight age-matched patients without diabetes were included in the study. Blood, aqueous humor, and vitreous body samples of all participants were collected during cataract and vitrectomy surgery. MDA concentrations and blood energy charge potential (ECP) were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The total antioxidant capacity of the samples was assessed by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) method (see Cao G. Methods enzimol.1999)The values of MDA, ECP and the total antioxidant capacity of the blood, aqueous humor, and vitreous body of diabetic and non-diabetic groups.
The MDA values are significantly higher in diabetic patients than in the control group: blood plasma (100.0 ± 62.6 vs. 1527.5 ± 979.8, p < 0.001); aqueous humor (52.0 ± 22.8 vs. 119.5 ± 8.2, p < 0.001); and vitreous body (57.3 ± 12.7 vs. 570.0 ± 336.1, p < 0.001). The blood ECP value is significantly lower (p = 0.007) in the diabetic group (0.88 ± 0.02) than in control group (0.81 ± 0.06). The total antioxidant capacity is significantly lower only in the vitreous body of diabetic patients (1.85 ± 0.84 vs. 0.51 ± 0.45 in control group, p = 0.040), whereas is not statistically different in either the blood plasma (diabetic group: 3.52 ± 0.73; control group: 3.05 ± 0.44, p = 0.128), and aqueous humor (diabetic group: 1.14 ± 0.55; control group: 0.90 ± 0.05, p = 0.419).
Our study confirms that diabetes is associated with an oxidative stress at the level of blood plasma, aqueous humor and vitreous body, as suggested by the observed increase in the levels of MDA. The data that the total antioxidant capacity of diabetic patients is reduced in the vitreous might strength the hypothesis of an involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinal complications.
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