April 2009
Volume 50, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2009
Three-Dimensional Optic Nerve Learning Module for Physicians in Training
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • A. S. Khouri
    Ophthalmology, UMD New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey
  • R. D. Fechtner
    Ophthalmology, UMD New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey
  • J. M. Liebmann
    Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, New York
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  A.S. Khouri, None; R.D. Fechtner, None; J.M. Liebmann, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  Research to Prevent Blindness, NY, NY
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2009, Vol.50, 5356. doi:
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      A. S. Khouri, R. D. Fechtner, J. M. Liebmann; Three-Dimensional Optic Nerve Learning Module for Physicians in Training. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):5356.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: : The aim of this study was to assess the educational impact of a novel 3-dimensional ON learning module for physicians in training.

Methods: : Current medical school curricula rely on text book images of the optic nerve (ON) for learning. The ON is a 3-dimensional structure that is best studied through stereoscopic images. Medical students and non-ophthalmology residents participated in the evaluation of a 3-dimensional ON learning module. The learning module consisted of normal and glaucoma images included during a short course presentation. All images were high resolution and obtained by simultaneous stereoscopic imaging (Nidek 3-Dx camera, Gamagori, Japan, Nikon D1x 6.1 megapixel, Tokyo, Japan). Images were mounted on View-Master (Fisher Price Inc. NY, USA) reels for stereoscopic viewing by participants. To assess the educational value of the module, each participant was asked to classify 25 ON images as normal or glaucoma before and again after the course presentation. Correct classification scores, sensitivity and specificity were calculated before and after the presentation.

Results: : 15 physicians in training participated in the learning module. A total of 750 ON images were classified. The mean time for a training session was 14 minutes. Correct classification improved in all participants (Mean 21%, SD 13%). Compared to baseline sensitivity and specificity of correct classification significantly improved after training. The results are summarized in the table.

Conclusions: : In this pilot study the recognition of normal and glaucoma ON was significantly improved after a single training with the 3-dimensional learning module. This learning tool is practical and effective and may be incorporated into academic curricula.

Keywords: learning • optic disc • imaging/image analysis: clinical 

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