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J.-L. Bourges, J. Son, J.-P. Hubschman, M. Culjat, B. Allen, V. Nistor, S. D. Schwartz; Sugical Motions Assessed by Electomagnetic Sensors During Ocular Surgery. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):6094.
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Robot-assisted ocular microsurgery could improve precision, save time or prevent complications by task automation, and provide access to ocular surgery in undeserved countries by teleoperation. However, to design robotic devices, the range of motion of surgical instruments needs to be precisely quantified.
Electromagnetic positional sensors (Ascension Technology, Burlington, VT) were attached to a phacoemulsification hand piece, a chopper, a vitreous cutter and an endocular light pipe. A referential sensor was sutured to the limbus. We performed successive surgical sequences (repeated 6 times each) mimicking cataract lens sculpture (LS), lens emulsification (PKE), cortex removal (CR), 360° vitrectomy (360), posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on pig eyes. The X, Y, and Z positions and orientations of the tools were continuously monitored. The time of task completion was also recorded.
The maximal values of translation and angles at the distal tip of each instruments and for each surgical step, are shown in Table 1.
To assist current ocular surgery, robotic devices holding instruments should allow for a minimum translation of 3.65cm, 3.14cm, 3.06cm respectively in the X, Y and Z planes and minimal angulations of 115.67° and 105.52° in the X and Y planes.
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