April 2009
Volume 50, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2009
Safety of Intravitreally Injected Immunomodulator Drugs
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • F. C. Erdurman
    Kentucky Lions Eye Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky
  • H. J. Kaplan
    Kentucky Lions Eye Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky
  • T. H. Tezel
    Kentucky Lions Eye Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  F.C. Erdurman, None; H.J. Kaplan, None; T.H. Tezel, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  Supported (THT) in part by NIH (KO8EY0416120-01) and a Career Development Award from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc, NYC, NY.,and the Kentucky Challenge Research Trust Fund (HJK).
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2009, Vol.50, 6239. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      F. C. Erdurman, H. J. Kaplan, T. H. Tezel; Safety of Intravitreally Injected Immunomodulator Drugs. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):6239.

      Download citation file:

      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

  • Supplements

Purpose: : Immunomodulation has been found to be effective in the treatment of many patients with autoimmune uveitis resistant to corticosteroids. The intraocular use of these drugs may be beneficial and avoid associated systemic toxicity. We determined the effect of intravitreally injected cytotoxic and immunomodulator drugs on retinal cell viability in vitro.

Methods: : Freshly enucleated adult domestic pig eyes were obtained from a local slaughterhouse. Isolated sensory retinas were cut into small pieces and incubated at 37 °C in the presence of Leflunomide (100 µg/mL), 6-mercaptopurine (50 µg/mL), Tacrolimus (40 µg/mL), Sirolimus (60 ng/mL), Cyclophosphamide (5 µg/mL), and Chlorambucil (0.65 µg/mL). At time points ranging between 1-120 hours retinal cell viability was determined using a Live-Dead viability kit. Untreated retina samples were used as controls. Pairwise Multiple Comparison Procedures (Bonferroni t-test) were used to compare the retinal cell viability results at different time points.

Results: : Apart from Leflunomide and Sirolimus (p>0.05), all tested drugs resulted in significant cell viability losscompared to controls. On day 5, toxic effect was highest with Cyclophosphamide (37.7 ± 7.4% vs. 79.3 ± 1.2%, p<0.01) and Chlorambucil (44.0 ± 10.1%, p<0.01), followed by 6-mercaptopurine (56.7 ± 3.1%, p=0.009) and Tacrolimus (60.0 ± 7.0%, p=0.034).

Conclusions: : Several cytotoxic and immunomodulator drugs tested in this study adversely effect retinal cell viability in vitro. Leflunomide and Sirolimus were relatively well tolerated. In vivo study of the most promising biologic pharmaceuticals are underway.

Keywords: immunomodulation/immunoregulation • drug toxicity/drug effects • retinal culture 

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.