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G. Fuchsjaeger-Mayrl, M. Funk, H. Resch, C. Vass, A. Luksch, C. Hirn, L. Rozanowa, U. Schmidt-Erfurth; Aqueous Humor Cytokine Levels in Glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):140.
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Glaucoma has been associated with low grade inflammation. The exact role of inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of various types of glaucoma is, however, unclear. In addition, few in vivo studies have provided direct evidence for inflammatory processes in glaucoma.
In this prospective open cross-sectional study 4 groups of patients scheduled for cataract surgery were included. The population consisted of 16 control subjects without glaucoma, 16 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 11 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and 14 patients with pseudexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG). Aqueous humor samples were taken in all patients during cataract surgery. Luminex (Luminex Inc., Austin, TX) multiplex assays were used for measurement of cytokines including Interleukin 1α (IL1α), Interleukin 1β (IL1β), Interleukin 6 (IL6), Matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9), Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI1), Inter-Cellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data analysis was done using an ANOVA model with planned comparisons for post hoc analysis.
IL1α was significantly reduced in PEXG (3.0 pg/ml, p = 0.011) and tended to be reduced in POAG (6.8 pg/ml) and NTG (4,8 pg/ml) as compared to controls (10,5 pg/ml, p = 0.011). IL1β, IL6, MMP9, PAI1, ICAM-1 and CRP aqueous humor levels were not significantly different between groups.
The present study does not provide evidence for an increase in cytokine levels in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients. The reduction in IL1α levels in PEXG may either be a chance finding or related to the reduced aqueous turnover in these patients.
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