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J. Zhang, A. Thomas, K. F. Akther, W. G. Hodge; Encapsulation and Releasing of Protein Drugs Through Nanostructured Contact Lens. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):439.
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Most protein-based ophthalmic drugs delivery through eye drops is inefficient and may lead to side effects due to the absorption of drug into the bloodstream. To increase efficiency and reduce side effects, the disposable nanoparticle-laden contact lens for protein drug delivery is developed.
Two types of hybrid nanocomposites drug delivery system were developed, including transparent inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) incoporated into hydrogel lens materials and transparent biopolymer NPs-loaded in hydrogel matrix. Proteins were first in situ encapsulated in porous nanoparticles (NPs) which were afterwards incorporated into cross-linked hydrogel lens materials, p(HEMA), through Deep UV curing. Two methods have been used to the encapsulation of proteins in NPs; first water-in-oil microemulsion was applied with reverse micelle to the encapsulation of hydrophilic protein within inorganic NPs, e.g. basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a protein involved in wound healing and blood vessel regeneration. In addition, a sol-gel method was used in loading of bovine serum albumin (BSA) within gelatin nanoparticles (NPs). In addition, a bio-friendly dye doped nanoparticles used as tracer to understand the the interaction between drug-loaded nanoparticles and hydrogel matrix.
The average diameter of inorganic NPs is around 50 nm. The in vitro releasing profile of bFGF from NPs-laden contact lens in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) has been monitored for 25 days through the colorimetric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the releasing profile of BSA in PBS (pH=7.4) from the gelatin NPs loaded p(HEMA) are able to be monitored for two weeks through UV-vis spectrometry. The average diameter of gelatin NPs is around 180 nm. The releasing profile of BSA from the gelatin nanoparticulate follows a diffusion-controlled release mechanism.
These studies show that the hydrophilic proteins are able to be loaded in different type of nanoparticles. It is expected that the nanoparticles-laden hydrogel lens materials a new delivery system to deliver protein drugs, e.g. growth factors, to help blood vessel regeneration and potentiate greater angiogenesis. The hydrogel film, e.g. pHEMA, further prolonged the releasing profile for the water soluble protein. It is expected that the new transparent hybrid nanocomposites used as protein carriers are able to be an alternative mean for protein therapy.
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