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M. G. Uva, T. Avitabile, C. Gagliano, A. Longo, M. Reibaldi, D. Scollo, A. Reibaldi; Intraocular Pressure and Central Corneal Thickness in Premature and Full-Term Newborns. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):556.
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To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the central corneal thickness (CCT) in premature and full-term newborns.
In 33 premature newborns (gestational age 25-35 weeks, mean 31±3; birth weight 830-2330 grams, mean 1474 ±354) and in 33 full-term newborns (gestational age 37-41 weeks, mean 39±1; birth weight 2045-3800 grams, mean 2763±574), IOP and CCT were determined. Patients were examined during a screening visit for retinopathy of prematurity performed at the neonatal unit of our department, within the first month of life (ocular examination included biomicroscopy by hand held slit lamp and ophthalmoscopy by binocular indirect ophthalmoscope in mydriasis). Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the children after the aim and the risks and of the study were fully explained. Exclusion criteria were: any ocular abnormality, such as corneal and iris alterations, congenital cataract, retinopathy, glaucomatous corneal and optic disk changes (horizontal corneal diameter>10 mmHg , C/D>0.4), familiarity for congenital glaucoma. In topical anaesthesia and with a wire lid retractor, IOP was determined by a tonometer "Tono Pen-XL" (Reichert, Inc., Depew, New York, USA): for each eye, three measurements with a standard deviation<5% were considered and the mean was calculated. Then CCT was determined by a portable pachimeter "Pachmate DGH-55" (DGH Technology Inc., Exton, Pennsylvania, USA): in each eye, three measurements were performed; the measurement with the lower standard deviation was considered. Measurements were performed by the same operator (between 11 am and 1 pm) in both eyes; for the analysis, one eye, randomly chosen, was considered.
Mean IOP was 18.9±3.7 mmHg (range 13-25 mmHg) in premature and 17±2.6 mmHg (range 12-22 mmHg) in full-term newborns (significant difference, p=0.001, t-test). Mean CCT was 599±36 microns (range 524-720 microns) in premature, and 576±26 microns (range 489-650 microns) in full-term group (significant difference, p=0.000, t-test). In both groups, no correlation was found between gestational age, birth weight and CCT or IOP, while a significant correlation was seen between CCT and IOP (premature r=0.623, p=0.001; full-term r=0.606, p=0.002).
Compared to full-term newborns, in premature newborns higher values of IOP and CCT were detected. In both groups, IOP was correlated with CCT (as expected), but not with gestational age and birth weight.
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