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S. A. Haymes, R. P. LeBlanc, M. T. Nicolela, B. C. Chauhan; Reliability and Validity of the Useful Field of View Test. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):935.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The Useful Field of View (UFOV) test is being used increasingly to assess and train older drivers, including those with slight to moderate vision impairment. However, its psychometric properties have not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity, test-retest reliability and repeatability of the UFOV among persons with normal vision and patients with vision impairment from glaucoma.
Three groups performed the UFOV (touch screen 6.0.8; Visual Awareness Research Group Inc., FL) twice: i) young participants with normal vision (n = 13, mean age 28 [SD 4] years, mean better eye VA -0.08 [SD 0.07] logMAR); ii) older age-matched participants with normal vision (n = 21, mean age 66 [SD 9] years, mean better eye VA 0.07 [SD 0.11] logMAR); and iii) patients with glaucoma (n = 22, mean age 68 [SD 8] years, mean better eye VA 0.06 [SD 0.10] logMAR, mean better eye MD -2.30 [SD 3.41] dB). Median time between tests was 14 days. To investigate repeatability, an additional group of 17 young participants (mean age 33 [SD 8] years) with normal vision performed the UFOV 5 times on the same day.
Mean total processing speed score was 124.8 (SD 31.0) ms, 334.3 (SD 219.2) ms and 517.5 (SD 253.7) ms for the young normal vision, older normal vision and glaucoma group, respectively. Between group differences were significant (ANOVA F = 14.57, P < 0.001; post-hoc pairwise comparisons P ≤ 0.04). Total score test-retest 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were ±85.6 ms, ±146.7 ms and ±331.0 ms for the young normal vision, older normal vision and glaucoma group, respectively. LOA were significantly wider for the glaucoma group compared to both the young and older normal vision groups (P < 0.01). Mean total processing speed was significantly faster on retest (31.5 [SD 43.7] ms, 56.2 [SD 74.8] ms and 144.7 [SD 168.9] ms for the young normal vision, older normal vision and glaucoma group, respectively; P ≤ 0.01). For young normal vision participants who repeated the test 5 times, performance remained constant after the second test (differences in total score < 6 ms).
We present findings on measurement properties of the UFOV, which are important for making appropriate decisions and evaluating driver training programs. The results indicate moderate variability, greater for patients with glaucoma than persons of similar age with normal vision, and a learning effect. Although the UFOV protocol incorporates practice trials, at least two consecutive full tests are suggested to establish reliable baseline measures.
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