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J. J. Siak, L. Tong, W.-L. Wong, H. Cajucom-Uy, M. Rosman, S.-M. Saw, T.-Y. Wong; Prevalence and Risk Factors of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: The Singapore Malay Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):1307.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To describe the prevalence and risk factors of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in an urban Malay population in Singapore.
Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,280 (78.7% response rate) Malay persons aged 40 and 80 years, living in Singapore. MGD was defined by a clinical examination at the slit lamp as either lid margin telangiectasia or meibomian gland orifice plugging in at least one eye. Participants had a standardized questionnaire, laboratory blood investigations, clinical measurements such as height, weight and blood pressure. Data were analyzed for 3271 persons.
The age standardized prevalence of MGD was 56.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 53.3-59.4), and that of MGD with dry eye symptoms was 39.3% (95% CI: 36.5-42.4). A higher proportion of men had MGD compared to women (Odds Ratio (OR):1.30, 95%CI: 1.35-1.79), across all age groups. MGD was associated with frequency of red eyes (OR:1.63, 95%CI: 1.02-2.62), presence of pinguecula (OR:2.43, 95%CI: 2.08-2.85), higher diastolic blood pressure (OR:1.32, 95%CI: 1.08-1.62) and use of angiotensin II receptor blockers (OR:4.02, 95%CI: 1.74-9.27). Menopause (OR:0.61, 95%CI: 0.43-0.84) and use of fibrates (OR:0.49, 95%CI: 0.25-0.97) were associated with lower prevalence of MGD.
MGD is highly prevalent in this Asian population and associated with systemic and ocular conditions.
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