April 2010
Volume 51, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2010
Environmental and Genetic Risk Factors of Myopia in Indonesian Children Population. The Jakarta Urban Eye Health Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • R. La Distia Nora
    FKUI RSCM, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • P. Hendrotanto
    FKUI RSCM, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • R. S. Sitorus
    Ophthalmology-Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, CiptoM Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • L. Simangunsong
    FKUI RSCM, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • D. R. Sjarif
    FKUI RSCM, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • P. Riono
    Biostatistic and Population Studies, Faculty of Public Health, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  R. La Distia Nora, None; P. Hendrotanto, None; R.S. Sitorus, None; L. Simangunsong, None; D.R. Sjarif, None; P. Riono, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  None.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2010, Vol.51, 1695. doi:
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      R. La Distia Nora, P. Hendrotanto, R. S. Sitorus, L. Simangunsong, D. R. Sjarif, P. Riono; Environmental and Genetic Risk Factors of Myopia in Indonesian Children Population. The Jakarta Urban Eye Health Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):1695.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: : To investigate the genetic and environmental risk factors associated with myopia among children in urban population in Jakarta

Methods: : A population based cross sectional study in children aged 6-15 years in 4 sub-districs in Eastern Jakarta was conducted. A total of 337 children were selected using stratified random cluster sampling. Myopia genetic factors was defined based on the history of either parental or siblings myopia in the family; whilst environmental factors was defined as near work activities, anthropometric status, outdoor or sports activities, and night light use before aged 2 years. Cycloplegic autorefraction was performed in the eligible subjects to assess the refractive status. Information on environmental factors was obtained using questionnaire addressed to parents and/or the children, and by direct measurement of anthropometric status.

Results: : The prevalence of myopia was 32.3% (CI 95%, 27.3%-37.3%). Using bivariate analysis, the OR of parental myopia was 2.14 (CI 95% 1.24-3.69); siblings myopia was OR 1.90 (CI 95% 0.97-3.74). OR of obese children was 2.74 (CI 95%, 0.97-7.74), mean difference of near-work activity was 6.11 dioptre hours (CI 95%, -1.89-14.12), OR of night-lighting was 0.967 (CI 95% 0.32-.290). In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for near-work activity, the adjusted OR of parental myopia was increased to 2.42 (CI 95% 1.32-4.46) and of siblings myopia was increased to 2.17 (CI 95% 0.97-4.87), suggesting near-work activity as a confounding factor.

Conclusions: : Parental myopia was a strong risk factor associated with myopia in Indonesia urban children population. Environmental factors such as night lighting, nearwork activity, anthropometric status does not seem to be related to myopia.

Keywords: refraction • clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: risk factor assessment • refractive error development 

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