April 2010
Volume 51, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2010
Myopia and Sun Exposure: Patients With Pingueculum and Pterygium Are Significantly Less Myopic
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • R. J. Mack
    Mack Eye Center, Hoffman Estates, Illinois
  • I. Shaikh
    Mack Eye Center, Hoffman Estates, Illinois
    St. Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri
  • S. J. Farley
    Division of Postgraduate Studies, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
  • C. Caldwell
    Mack Eye Center, Hoffman Estates, Illinois
  • E. Chaglasian
    Mack Eye Center, Hoffman Estates, Illinois
    Illinois College of Optometry, Chicago, Illinois
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  R.J. Mack, None; I. Shaikh, None; S.J. Farley, None; C. Caldwell, None; E. Chaglasian, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  None.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2010, Vol.51, 1697. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      R. J. Mack, I. Shaikh, S. J. Farley, C. Caldwell, E. Chaglasian; Myopia and Sun Exposure: Patients With Pingueculum and Pterygium Are Significantly Less Myopic. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):1697.

      Download citation file:

      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

  • Supplements

Purpose: : About one third of adults in the US are myopic. Despite the high prevalence and significant morbidity of myopia, little is known about the etiology of the condition. Recently, however, one study correlated higher levels of childhood sun exposure with a reduced risk of myopia. Pingueculum and pterygium are likewise firmly associated with childhood sun exposure, but we could find no data on refractive errors in these two conditions. We gathered refractive data on patients with pingueculum and pterygium to identify any differences in refractive error from the general population.

Methods: : Patients aged 21 or older and who were diagnosed by one cornea specialist with pingueculum or pterygium were included in this retrospective study. Refractive error was assessed in manifest refraction, spectacles, uncorrected acuity, and corneal topography. It was compared to age matched controls seen by the same doctor for conditions unrelated to sun exposure or refractive error. Data were analyzed using the chi square test.

Results: : 61 patients with pingueculum or pterygium in at least one eye were analyzed. Less than two percent of eyes in patients with pingueculum or pterygium showed more than 0.5 D spherical equivalent of myopia, compared to 31% of age matched controls in our study. The average spherical equivalent in the pingueculum and pterygium groups was +0.65 D (range, SD; -0.5 - +1.6, +.48). The average spherical equivalent among age matched controls was -0.87 D (range, SD; -3.75 - + 1.5, +2.52). Chi Square analysis revealed p < 0.001. The refractive error in our age-matched controls was similar to that of patients in the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

Conclusions: : Patients with pingueculum and pterygium were much less likely to be myopic than their age matched peers in our study. This supports but does not prove the hypothesis that childhood sun exposure is associated with a decreased risk of myopia.Keywords: myopia, pterygium, pingueculum, refractive error, sun exposure

Keywords: myopia • pterygium • refractive error development 

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.