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H. Guan, D. Yuan, H. Lu; A Survey of Refractive States Among Preschool Children in East China. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):1708.
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To evaluate the prevalence of the refractive states and variation trend among children aged 3 to 6 years in Nantong, China.
A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Nantong City, an urban East China, in 2007. By simple random sampling, 680 children aged 3 to 6 years (170 children each age stage aged from 3 to 6 years) were randomly selected. Children were subjected to retinoscopy and optometry bilaterally after paralyzing ciliary muscles with 1% atropine ointment. The prevalence of ametropia and the average spherical equivalence by 1-year age intervals with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were obtained and a linear regression analysis was used to study refractive states variables associated with age. A chi square test was used to test the difference of average spherical equivalence refractive error between every two different ages.
A total of 617 (90.73%) out of 680 children participated in the survey. the prevalence of hyperopia, myopia, and emmetropia were 60.33% (95% CI, 58.36%-62.30%), 0.65% (95% CI, 0.33%-0.97%) and 39.02% (95% CI, 37.05%-40.99%) respectively. The average spherical equivalence refractive error aged 3 to 6 years by 1-year age intervals were +2.29D (95% CI, +2.20D-+2.39D), +2.03D (95% CI, +1.94D-+2.10D), +1.85D (95% CI, +1.77D-+1.93D) and +1.68D (95% CI, +1.59D-+1.78D) respectively and the differences between every two different ages had statistically significant by using chi square test (p<0.01). Linear regression analysis indicated that the mean annual decrease of refractive error was 0.2D.
Most of spherical equivalent refractive state of preschool children was slight hyperopia and emmetropia, and the refractive errors decreased year by year gradually with the increase of age.
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