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E. Gable, L. Novak; The Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in a Rural Guatemalan Eye Clinic. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):2095.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To describe the age- and gender-specific prevalence, characteristics, and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a rural population in Escuintla, Guatemala.
Patients presenting to the Fundazucre Eye Clinic for initial ocular evaluation were invited to participate in the study once they reported having a diagnosis of diabetes. Those who chose to participate were given a comprehensive ocular examination. The presence of diabetic retinopathy was considered a significant outcome. All findings were identified and classified for the severity of diabetes by the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study classification system. The collected data were analyzed using standard statistical computations.
Of the 693 patients receiving their initial evaluation, 73 were determined to have diabetes. Of those identified as having diabetes, 42(6.06%) had retinopathy. The ratio of male to female was 3:4. The age of participants ranged from .1to 94. Average age was 53 years, with duration of disease average as 6.1 years. Undiagnosed diabetic retinopathy was present in 26.19% (11/42); untreated diabetic retinopathy was present in 26.19% (11/42); vision threatening retinopathy -untreated -was present in 26.19% (11/42) while vision threatening retinopathy - previously treated was present in 4.76% (2/42). Macular edema was present in 21.43% (9/42). Of the 9 patients with macular edema 88.89% (8/9) was clinically significant and untreated. Clinically significant macular edema when present was either bilateral (4/8) and/or accompanied by further retinal complications which consisted of the following: macroaneurysm (1 patient), BRVO (1 patient), severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (1 patient).
This study demonstrates the need for effective screening and access to necessary care in remote areas of Guatemala.
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