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Y. Pan, C. Vigen, S. P. Azen, R. Varma, The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group; Longitudinal Associations With 4-Year Changes in Intraocular Pressure: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):2763.
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To examine risk factors related to increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) over a 4 year period.
Data were collected from the LALES - a population-based sample of self-identified Latinos of predominantly Mexican ancestry, 40 years or older, in Los Angeles County. Participants underwent an interview and an ocular examination at baseline and 4 years later. General and ocular measures that were assessed included age, gender, body mass index, pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, refraction, iris color, and degree of nuclear sclerosis, IOP (Goldmann applanation tonometry), central corneal thickness, and axial length. IOP increase was defined as an increase ≥ 4 mm Hg at the 4 year follow-up compared to baseline. All persons with a history of ocular hypotensive treatment were excluded. Univariate and stepwise regression analysis were used calculate odds ratios (OR) for those independent risk factors associated with increased IOP.
Of the 3990 subjects examined at baseline and 4 years later, 361 participants (9.0%) had ≥ 4 mm Hg increase from their baseline IOP and 3336 participants (83.6%) had a < 4 mm Hg change in IOP (reference group). Independent risk factors for ≥ 4 mm Hg increase in IOP at 4-year follow up when compared to the reference group were lower baseline IOP (OR 0.83 per mm Hg), older age (OR 1.02 per decade), shorter axial length (OR 0.84 per mm), and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR 1.49)
This study identifies biological factors that can help define groups at risk for developing elevated IOP. Persons with these risk factors should be examined periodically to detect the early development of glaucomatous optic nerve damage.
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