April 2010
Volume 51, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2010
Prevalence Rates and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors in Urban Singapore Indians: The Singapore Indian Eye (SINDI) Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • S.-M. Saw
    Epidemiology and Public Health, National Univ of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
  • W.-L. Wong
    Ophthalmology, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • R. Lavanya
    Ophthalmology, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • R. Wu
    Ophthalmology, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Y. Zheng
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
  • T. Aung
    Glaucoma, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore, Singapore
  • T. L. Young
    Ophthalmology, Duke University Eye Center, Durham, North Carolina
  • P. J. Foster
    Epidemiology, Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom
  • P. Mitchell
    Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
  • T. Y. Wong
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  S.-M. Saw, None; W.-L. Wong, None; R. Lavanya, None; R. Wu, None; Y. Zheng, None; T. Aung, None; T.L. Young, None; P.J. Foster, None; P. Mitchell, None; T.Y. Wong, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  Biomedical Research Council (BMRC), 08/1/35/19/550, Singapore
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2010, Vol.51, 2966. doi:
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      S.-M. Saw, W.-L. Wong, R. Lavanya, R. Wu, Y. Zheng, T. Aung, T. L. Young, P. J. Foster, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong; Prevalence Rates and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors in Urban Singapore Indians: The Singapore Indian Eye (SINDI) Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):2966.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: : To determine the prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in in urban Singapore Indians.

Methods: : A population-based, prevalence survey of Indians ≥40 years was conducted in the South-Western part of Singapore based on the Singapore Malay Eye Study protocol. An age-stratified random sampling procedure was used for 6,350 Indian names. Subjective refraction was determined, and autorefraction using the Canon RK-F1 table-mounted autorefractor. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -0.50 diopters (D) and high myopia as SE ≤ -5.00 D. Astigmatism was defined as cylinder ≥ 0.50 D, hyperopia as SE ≥ + 0.50 D, and anisometropia as a SE difference ≥ 1.00 D. Prevalence rates were adjusted to the 2000 Singapore census.

Results: : Of the 6,350 names, 4,555 were eligible to participate, and of these, 3,379 (74.2%) were examined and right eye data were available for 2842 audlts with no history of cataract surgery. The age-adjusted rate of myopia was 27.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 25.8, 30.2], with 29.3% in females and 26.9% in males. The high myopia rate was 4.4% (95% CI 3.6, 5.3). There was a U-shaped relationship between prevalence of myopia and increasing age (33.6%, 23.9%, 20.2%, 25.5% for age clusters below 50, 50-59, 60-69, 70 years and above respectively). The age-adjusted rates were 55.1% for astigmatism, 25.8% for hyperopia and 24.4% for anisometropia In a multiple logistic regression model, adults who were female, younger, taller, used the computer regularly, and read regularly were more likely to be myopic. Adults with myopia, cataract, who were heavier and older had higher risks of astigmatism. Both hyperopia and anisometropia were associated with regular computer usage and older age.

Conclusions: : The rate of myopia of 27.9% is fairly high in Singapore Indian adults, similar to Singapore Malays adults (26.2%). Gender, height, reading, writing, and computer use are associated with myopia, while cataract, weight, age, and myopia are associated with astigmatism.

Keywords: myopia • refractive error development • visual development 

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