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G. Gazzard, C. Sng, X.-Y. Lin, B. C. Chang, M. Dirani, I. Kit, B. Drobe, A. Chia, T. Y. Wong, S.-M. Saw; Peripheral Refraction and Refractive Error in Singaporean Chinese Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):2970.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
This study aims to describe peripheral refraction measurements and their relationship to central refractive error in Singapore Chinese children.
250 children aged 40 months or older from the Strabismus, Amblyopia and Refractive error in Singapore Children (STARS) study were recruited. Peripheral refraction was measured after pupil dilation using an infrared autorefractor (Grand Seiko Autorefractor / Keratometer WAM-5500, Grand Seiko Co. Ltd., Hiroshima, Japan). A total of 5 measurements were captured: central visual axis, and 15 degrees eccentricities in the nasal and temporal visual fields.
The mean age of the participants recruited was 83.1 ± 36.2 months. There were 118 children with myopia (47.2%), 84 with emmetropia (33.6%) and 47 with hyperopia (18.8%). The mean SE was -0.87 D at the center, -0.88 D at temporal 30 degrees, -1.09D at temporal 15 degrees , -0.52 D at nasal 30 degrees and -1.11 D at nasal 15 degrees. Children with myopia had relative hyperopia at the temporal (mean = -2.22D) and nasal 30 degrees (mean = -1.71D) compared to the central meridian (mean = -2.66D) (p < 0.001), but not at the nasal and temporal 15 degrees. Children with emmetropia and hyperopia had peripheral relative myopia at all eccentricities (p < 0.001).
Young myopic Singapore Chinese children with myopia tend towards relative hyperopia in the periphery. These data substantiate previous studies in older people, and provide insights into possible early changes in the eye in myopia development.
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