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E. M. Aring, J. Dahlgren, K. Allvin, J. Nilsson, M. A. Gronlund; Ocular Alignment in Children Born Moderately Preterm -Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):3001. doi: https://doi.org/.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
It is well known that children born preterm and with low birth weight have an increased risk for strabismus. In the present study we have investigated whether children born moderately premterm also have an increased risk and in addition we have analyzed the influence of birth weight and /or length.
72 children born between >32 and <37weeks gestation, with a median age at investigation of 5.7 years (range 5.3 - 6.4 years) were compared with 32 children born full term and matched for age and sex. 54/72 children were born appropriate for gestation age (AGA) and 18/72 small for gestational age (SGA) (-2SDS in length and/or weight). Cover test was performed at 3.0 and 0.3m. For evaluating stereo acuity the TNO test was used. Significant misalignment was defined as heterotropia at any distance or exophoria (-) as values below the 5th percentile in the control group and esophoria (+) as values above the 95th percentile (cut off values at distance -5PD to +3PD and at near -11PD to +7PD).
Significant misalignment was found among 22% of the full term children, 9% of the children born AGA and in 32% of the children born SGA. Between full term controls and moderately preterm children whether they were born AGA or SGA, no significant differences were found. However, children born SGA had significant more misalignment compared to AGA children (p=0,02). Reduced stereo acuity (>60 seconds of arc) among children without heterotropia were found in the AGA group (17%), and in the SGA group (5%) while all the controls had normal stereo acuity (AGA vs. controls; p=0,023).
Children born moderately preterm, AGA or SGA do not have an increased risk for misalignment compared to full term children at 5 years of age. However reduced stereo acuity is more common in children born moderately preterm.
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