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R. Yamagishi, M. Aihara, M. Araie; Neuroprotective Effect of Astaxanthin Against Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells Damage Under the Various Stress. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):3182.
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Astaxanthin is a kind of carotenoids with strong anti-oxidant effect. The purpose of this study is to investigate wether astaxanthin indicates neuroprotective effect against glutamate stress, oxidative stress, and hypoxic condition in primary culture of rat ganglion cells ( RGCs ).
RGCs were purified using a 2 step immunopanning procedure from postnatal 6-8 newborn Wister rats. After 72 hours in culture under normal condition. RGCs were exposed to three kinds of stress induced by 25<font face="Symbol">m</font>M glutamate during 72 hours, B27 medium without anti-oxidant for oxidantive stress during 4 hours, and 5% lower oxygen condition during 12 hours. Each assay was repeated 12 times with or without astaxanthin 1nM, 10nM, and 100nM. After each stress, a number of RGCs was counted by cell viability assay. RGC viability in each condition was evaluated in comparison with that under normal condition.
Under glutamate stress, RGC viability reduced to 55%. With astaxanthin 1nM, 10 nM and 100 nM, RGC viability increased to 60%, 70%, and 82%, respectively. Under oxidative stress, RGC viability reduced to 40%. With astaxanthin 1nM, 10 nM and 100 nM, RGC viability increased to 43%, 50%, and 67%, respectively. Under hyoxia, RGC viability reduced to 66%. With astaxanthin 1nM, 10 nM and 100 nM, RGC viability significantly increased to 67%, 77%, and 93%, respectively. Astaxanthin 100nM indicated a statistical significant increase of RGC viability under three kinds of stress compared to the normal. (Dunnett test p<0.05)
Our results suggest that astaxanthin has a neuroprotective effect on RGC induced by glutamate stress, oxidative stress, and hypoxic condition with low concentration.
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