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K.-C. Yoon, J.-S. Lee, K.-H. Mun, I.-C. You; Expression of CCL3 and CCL4 in the Tear Film and Ocular Surface of Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):3397.
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To investigate the expression of CCL3/MIP (macrophage inflammatory protein)-1α and CCL4/MIP-1β in the tear film and ocular surface in dry eye syndrome.
Forty patients with dry eye (15 patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and 25 patients with non-Sjögren’s syndrome) and 10 control subjects were recruited. The concentrations of CCL3 and CCL4 in tears were measured using ELISA. The correlation between the levels and tear film and ocular surface parameters was analyzed. Expression of CCL3 and CCL4 was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze CCR5+ cells and their phenotypes in the conjunctiva.
The concentrations of CCL3 and CCL4 were 141.51±71.91 and 426.37±298.72 pg/mL in dry eye patients and 26.43±36.67 and 4.30±8.64 pg/mL in the controls (P<0.01). The concentrations were significantly increased in Sjögren’s syndrome patients compared with non-Sjögren’s syndrome patients (P<0.05). The CCL3 and CCL4 levels correlated significantly with basal tear secretion, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy score, and goblet cell density (P<0.05). Staining for the chemokines increased in dry eye patients, especially in Sjögren’s syndrome patients. Flow cytometry demonstrated an increased number of CCR5+ cells, CCR5+CD3+, and CCR5+CD14+ cells in dry eye patients.
Expression of CCL3 and CCL4, which attract monocyte, activated T cells, and NK cells, increases in the tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye syndrome, especially in those with Sjögren’s syndrome. The level correlates with various tear film and ocular surface parameters.
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