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Z. Sadrai, A. R. Hajrasouliha, S. Chauhan, D. Saban, R. Dana; Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Topical Azithromycin Ophthalmic Solution 1% in the Treatment of Ocular Inflammation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):3789.
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To determine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of AZM on corneal inflammation.
Murine corneal inflammation was induced by thermal cautery. Corneas were treated topically either with AZM ophthalmic solution 1% (AzaSite®; Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Inc, NC, USA), prednisolone acetate 1% or relevant vehicles, twice per day. Corneas were harvested on days 1, 3, and 7 to characterize the inflammatory infiltrates via FACS analysis and to quantitate and analyze relevant chemokines/cytokines and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) via real time PCR.
Relative to the vehicle control, the AZM-treated group showed a significant reduction in total infiltration of CD45+ (pan-leukocyte marker) cells at early time points (i.e. day 1) by 30% and later time points (i.e. day 7) by 39%, which was similarly observed in the prednisolone-treated group. Specifically, we observed a 6% reduction in macrophages (CD11b+) at later time points in the AZM-treated and 16% reduction in the prednisolone-treated groups. Moreover, dendritic cells (CD11c+) demonstrated a 35% reduced infiltration at later time points in the AZM-treated and a 40% reduction in the prednisolone-treated groups. ICAM-1 expression in the AZM-treated group reduced by two-fold at day 7.
Following an inflammatory insult, topical AZM considerably reduces the leukocyte infiltration into the cornea at levels comparable to the prednisolone-treated group. This was further supported by an associated decrease in expression of ICAM-1 in the cornea in the AZM-treated eyes. This indicates that AZM may have a potential anti-inflammatory effect on corneal inflammation.
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