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L. Liebermann, T. Yamada, B. G. Mohney; Comparing Refractive Error Between Two Autorefractors and Manual Retinoscopy in Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):3930.
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Two of the most prevalent methods for determining refractive error include manual cycloplegic refraction by retinoscopy and automated, non-cycloplegic refraction. The purpose of this study is to compare the pre-cycloplegic refractive error findings of the Nikon Retinomax K-Plus 3 and the PediaVision Plusoptix S04 Vision Screener with manual cycloplegic retinoscopy performed in children without ocular disorders other than ametropia.
Consecutive children aged 0 to 18 years presenting for a routine ocular examination were measured with the Plusoptix S04 and Retinomax K-Plus 3 before cycloplegia and with post-cycloplegic manual retinoscopy. The data were compared using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).
A total of 30 children were examined at a mean age of 8.4 years (range, 3.8 to 13 years). The mean cycloplegic spherical equivalent for the 30 subjects was +0.62 (range, -3.0 to +6.10). The mean difference in the spherical equivalent between the Retinomax K-Plus 3 and the Plusoptix S04 was 0.004 D (p=0.79) while there was a -0.87 D difference between the Retinomax K-Plus 3 and manual cycloplegic retinoscopy (p<0.001), and a -0.87 D difference between the Plusoptix S04 and manual cycloplegic retinoscopy (p=0.002).
Although the Retinomax K-Plus 3 and the Plusoptix S04 autorefractors produced similar results, both autorefractors falsely measured approximately 1 diopter more myopia than the post-cycloplegic retinoscopy in children.
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