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P. D. Cackett, I. Yeo, C. M. G. Cheung, E. N. Vithana, D. Wong, W. T. Tay, E. S. Tai, T. Aung, T. Y. Wong; Relationship of Smoking and Cardiovascular Risk Factors With Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy and Macular Degeneration in Chinese. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):4541.
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Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) has been described as a distinct clinical entity from choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration (CNV-AMD). The present study aimed to determine risk factors for PCV and to compare associations with those for CNV-AMD.
Patients of Chinese ethnicity with clinically and angiographically diagnosed PCV or CNV-AMD were recruited from a tertiary eye. hospital in Singapore. The study included 123 patients with PCV and 128 patients with CNV-AMD. 448 Controls without signs of PCV, CNV-AMD or other retinal pathology were selected from a population-based study. Patients underwent ophthalmologic examination including digital color fundus photography, stereoscopic fluorescein angiography (FFA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Classification into PCV or CNV-AMD was based on FFA/ICGA findings. Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular risk factors were determined from a standardized interview, with blood pressure recorded using a digital automatic blood pressure monitor.
After adjusting for age and gender, persons who had a history of smoking were significantly more likely to have PCV (relative risk, RR, 4.2, 95% confidence interval, CI, 2.5, 7.0, p<0.001), and CNV-AMD (RR, 5.5, 95% CI, 3.2, 9.4, p<0.001). Cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and stroke, were not associated with either PCV or CNV-AMD.
: Smoking is significantly associated with both PCV and CNV-AMD in Chinese persons. This suggests that there may be common risk factors and pathological mechanisms in the etiology of these two conditions.
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