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M. A. Gronlund, E. M. Aring, J. Nilsson, G. Kotnik, K. Allvin, J. Dahlgren; Visual Function in Premature Preschool Children Born to Mothers With Preeclampsia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):5275.
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The aim of this prospective, transectional study was to evaluate if preeclampsia affects visual function in preschool children born preterm.
66 children were recruited from a longitudinal study of premature children born with a gestational age (GA) 32 to 36 weeks. 23 of them (13 boys; mean GA 34.7 weeks) with a mean age of 5.7 years (range 5.4 to 6.4 years) were born to mothers with preeclampsia. The other 43 children (23 boys; mean GA 34.7 weeks) with a mean age of 5.5 years (range 5.3 to 6.3 years) served as controls. A detailed ophthalmological examination was performed including visual acuity (VA), eye motility, near point of convergence, accommodation, stereo acuity, refraction in cycloplegia, slit-lamp examination, and ophthalmoscopy. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded binocularly and a history of visual perception problems was taken.
17/23 (74%) of the children born to mothers with preeclampsia showed ophthalmological findings compared with 26/43 (60%) of the controls. There was no significant difference between children born to mothers with preeclampsia and controls regarding VA at distance (mean logMAR 0.08 and 0.1 respectively), hyperopia ≥2.0 D SE (n = 11 vs. 16), myopia ≥0.5 D SE (n = 0 vs. 0), astigmatism ≥1D (n = 4 vs. 4), significant misalignment (n= 3 vs. 4), stereo acuity >60 sec arc (n = 2 vs. 10), convergence at near >6 cm (n = 2 vs. 1), accommodation <20 D (n = 4 vs.9) or recording of visual perceptual problems (n = 3 vs. 2). Pattern-reversal VEP did not show any significant difference between the two groups (P100 = 101.9 and 101.4 ms respectively). Four children had large cups in normal sized optic discs and the same number was found among the controls. Three other controls had increased tortuosity of retinal vessels and one child had a small optic disc.
Our results indicate no difference in visual function in preschool children born preterm to mothers with preeclampsia compared with children born to mothers not having preeclampsia during pregnancy. However, a large number of these moderately premature children have significant ophthalmological findings.
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