April 2010
Volume 51, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2010
Characterization of a Long-Term Porcine Model for Diabetic Retinopathy
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • R. Whiting
    Veterinary Medicine & Surgery,
    Biological Engineering,
    University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
  • J. Liu
    Sinclair Research Center, LLC, Columbia, Missouri
  • G. Bouchard
    Sinclair Research Center, LLC, Columbia, Missouri
  • D. Unterreiner
    Sinclair Research Center, LLC, Columbia, Missouri
  • M. Jeong
    Veterinary Medicine & Surgery,
    University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
    College of Veterinary Medicine and BK 21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  • K. Narfstrom
    Veterinary Medicine & Surgery,
    Ophthalmology, Mason Eye Institute,
    University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  R. Whiting, None; J. Liu, Sinclair Research Center, LLC, E; G. Bouchard, Sinclair Research Center, LLC, E; D. Unterreiner, Sinclair Research Center, LLC, E; M. Jeong, None; K. Narfstrom, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  None.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2010, Vol.51, 5620. doi:
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      R. Whiting, J. Liu, G. Bouchard, D. Unterreiner, M. Jeong, K. Narfstrom; Characterization of a Long-Term Porcine Model for Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):5620.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose: : A porcine model was developed and characterized for long-term effects of diabetes mellitus on retinal function and structure.

Methods: : Three normal pigs and six pigs with alloxan induced diabetes were studied either short-term (ST) or long-term (LT): 5-8 months (n=3) or 13-17 months (n=3) after diabetic induction. Pigs were treated periodically with insulin to maintain a manageable blood glucose level (133-600 mg/dL). Electroretinograms were performed under isofluorane anesthesia using a portable, full-field, flash system and standardized protocol. A-wave, b-wave, and oscillatory potential (OP) amplitudes were evaluated. Pigs were euthanized, eyes enucleated and fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in sodium cacodylate buffer for transmission electron microscopy. Cross-sectional images of capillaries from inner nuclear (INL) and inner plexiform/ganglion cell (IPL/GCL) layers (10-20 from each layer) were obtained from each LT pig and one normal pig. For each vessel, average thickness of the basement membrane was calculated. The Tukey-Kramer method was used for pairwise comparisons of membrane thickness in both INL and IPL/GCL.

Results: : At maximum scotopic intensity, two of three LT pigs had increased a-wave amplitudes (57% and 146%) compared to average of three normal pigs. B-wave amplitudes appeared normal in the LT pigs but reduced in all ST pigs (45-58%). At standard scotopic intensity, OP amplitudes were increased in two of three LT and one ST pig and reduced in remaining pigs. Basement membrane thickness was significantly increased (p<0.001) in two of three LT pigs, both in INL and IPL/GCL. Changes in OP amplitude and basement membrane thickness occurred in the same two pigs.

Conclusions: : Two of three LT diabetic pigs exhibited changes in both retinal function and structure. Some variability in the data may be due to insulin treatment and a wide range of blood glucose levels. This porcine model may become valuable for further research into disease mechanisms and treatment modalities.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy • electroretinography: non-clinical • microscopy: electron microscopy 
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