April 2010
Volume 51, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2010
Leveraging Phase II Study Data to Effectively Select Primary Endpoints and Sample Size for a Phase III Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • H.-C. Hsu
    Biostatistics, Dry Eye,
    Statistics and Data Corporation (SDC), Tempe, Arizona
  • M. Patane
    EyeGate Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts
  • G. Ousler, III
    Biostatistics, Dry Eye,
    Ora, Inc., Andover, Massachusetts
  • K. Kennedy
    Biostatistics, Dry Eye,
    Statistics and Data Corporation (SDC), Tempe, Arizona
  • P. Johnston
    Ora, Inc., Andover, Massachusetts
  • R. Abelson
    Statistics and Data Corporation (SDC), Tempe, Arizona
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  H.-C. Hsu, SDC, E; M. Patane, EyeGate Pharmaceuticals, Inc., E; G. Ousler, III, Ora, E; K. Kennedy, SDC, E; P. Johnston, Ora, E; R. Abelson, SDC, E.
  • Footnotes
    Support  EyeGate Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2010, Vol.51, 6270. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      H.-C. Hsu, M. Patane, G. Ousler, III, K. Kennedy, P. Johnston, R. Abelson; Leveraging Phase II Study Data to Effectively Select Primary Endpoints and Sample Size for a Phase III Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(13):6270.

      Download citation file:

      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

  • Supplements

Purpose: : We conducted a single-center, double-masked, randomized phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of ocular iontophoresis of EGP-437 (dexamethasone phosphate 40 mg/mL) at two current levels (7.5 mA-min at 2.5 mA and 10.5 mA-min at 3.5 mA), each compared to placebo for treating the signs and symptoms of dry eye. In order to select the endpoints with the strongest potential treatment effects as the primary endpoints for the next study, we employed a bootstrapping method utilizing the previous study’s data to simulate potential sample populations to identify the endpoints with stable treatment effect signals. Additional simulations were then employed to help select a final sample size.

Methods: : In the phase II study, several efficacy endpoints showed significant or nearly significant treatment effects; these were selected as candidate primary endpoints for the next study. A bootstrapping method was used to sample subjects from each treatment group from the previous study’s ITT population. For each of the bootstrap samples, each endpoint was analyzed for statistical significance by an appropriate statistical method, and the endpoints with higher success rates were deemed more likely to be successful efficacy endpoints for the next study. Simulations for those endpoints were then rerun, varying the sample size to optimize power.

Results: : Signs that showed promising success rates included fluorescein and lissamine green staining (Ora scale), tear film break-up time (TFBUT), and ocular protection index (OPI). Promising symptoms included ocular discomfort during Controlled Adverse Environment (CAE) and stinging in the diary. The sign with the best intersection of success with the symptoms was fluorescein staining. The number of subjects per group for the promising endpoints was then varied in follow-up simulations to achieve success rates of approximately 80%.

Conclusions: : The bootstrapping approach to ranking efficacy endpoints was helpful in prioritizing endpoint options and then selecting sample sizes for phase III development.

Clinical Trial: : www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00765804

Keywords: clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: biostatistics/epidemiology methodology 

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.