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S. D. Grozdanic, M. M. Harper, H. Kecova, W. Nilaweera, A. E. Boll, M. H. Kuehn, D. S. Sakaguchi, R. H. Kardon; Antibody Mediated Retinopathy - New Mechanisms and Treatment Strategies. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):198. doi: https://doi.org/.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To characterize the molecular nature of spontaneous retinopathy (sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome-SARDS) in dogs and determine therapeutic effect of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) and systemic steroids on restoration of different visual parameters.
Six eyes from 5 SARDS dogs euthanized due to irreversible blindness were analyzed using microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry for presence of immune cells and complement expression. Seven additional dogs diagnosed with SARDS were examined using pupil light reflex (PLR) analysis, photopic blink reflex response (PBR), electroretinography (ERG) and visual behavior testing before and after treatment with IVIg and steroid therapy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to evaluate retinal thickness.
Molecular analysis of SARDS retinas showed extensive intra-retinal presence of immunoglobulin rich plasma cells in all stages of disease. Microarray analysis of SARDS retinal tissue showed significant up-regulation of genes responsible for immunoglobulin synthesis (6-147 fold increase). Complement genes were significantly up-regulated in SARDS eyes (3-10 fold increase), which was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Optical coherence tomography showed significant thinning of the nerve fiber layer and total retinal thickness of the inferior retina in SARDS patients. All SARDS patients improved visual function and photoreceptor-mediated PLR responses after treatment.
SARDS is a spontaneously occurring canine model of antibody-mediated retinopathy with a novel mechanism of antibody production from intra-retinal infiltrated plasma cells. This syndrome is at least partially responsive to the IVIg therapy.
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