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A. W. Foong, M.-Y. Lai, J. Chung, R. Klein, S. P. Azen, R. Varma, the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group; Four-Year Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in a Population-Based Cohort of Adult Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):596. doi: https://doi.org/.
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To evaluate the 4-year incidence of early (defined by drusen size and type and retinal pigmentary abnormalities) and advanced AMD (defined by geographic atrophy and exudative AMD) in a population-based sample of Latinos.
Data for this analysis is derived from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES), a population-based cohort study of eye disease in Latinos (primarily Mexican-Americans) aged 40 years and older. All participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including stereoscopic fundus photography using standard protocols at both baseline and 4-year follow-up. Photographs were graded for AMD characteristics using a modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Incidence of AMD was defined by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) severity scale. Test of trend was conducted to assess differences in incidence when stratified by age groups and chi-square test for differences in incidence between genders.
The 4-year incidence of early AMD was 6.9% (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) [incidence for large drusen ≥125µm in diameter was 3.9% (95% CI, 3.4-4.4), soft distinct drusen was 10.4% (95% CI, 9.3-11.7), soft indistinct drusen was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.5-2.6), and pigmentary abnormalities was 2.1% (95% CI, 1.6-2.7)]. The 4-year incidence of advanced AMD was 0.2% (95% CI, 0.1-0.4) [incidence for geographic atrophy was 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0-0.3) and exudative AMD was 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0-0.3)]. Incidence increased with age for early AMD (from 4.0% in those 40-49 years of age to 15.8% in those over 70 years of age, p<0.001) and advanced AMD (from 0.2% in those 60-69 years of age to 6.3% in those over 70 years of age, p<0.001). There were no cases of incident advanced AMD in persons younger than 60 years of age. When controlling for age, there was no difference in incidence by gender.
Data from this study described the low incidence of advanced AMD development in the Latino population. The reasons for lower age-specific incidence in Latinos compared to non-Hispanic Whites requires further epidemiological study.
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