May 2008
Volume 49, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2008
Diet, Supplement and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • C.-J. Chiu
    Human Nutrition Research Ctr, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts
  • R. Klein
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin
  • R. C. Milton
    AREDS Coordinating Center, The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, Maryland
  • G. Gensler
    AREDS Coordinating Center, The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, Maryland
  • A. Taylor
    Human Nutrition Research Ctr, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  C. Chiu, None; R. Klein, None; R.C. Milton, None; G. Gensler, None; A. Taylor, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  USDA agreements 1950-5100-060-01A; NIH R01-13250, R03-EY014183-01A2; Johnson and Johnson Focused Giving Program; American Health Assistance Foundation; Ross Aging Initiative
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2008, Vol.49, 597. doi:https://doi.org/
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    • Get Citation

      C.-J. Chiu, R. Klein, R. C. Milton, G. Gensler, A. Taylor; Diet, Supplement and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):597. doi: https://doi.org/.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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  • Supplements
Abstract

Purpose: : The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) showed that high-dose supplements of antioxidants and/or zinc are protective against advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our objective was to evaluate how dietary intake affects AMD risk in AREDS supplement users.

Methods: : Dietary information was collected at baseline and fundus photographs were taken and graded during the 8-y trial period from 2,924 eligible AREDS AMD trial participants. Using Cox proportional-hazards regression, we related the risk of AMD progression to dietary intake in the four arms of the trial.

Results: : Independent of AREDS supplementation, higher intakes of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ≥ 64.0 vs. < 26.0 mg/d) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57, 0.94) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, ≥ 42.3 vs. < 12.7 mg/d) (HR = 0.74, 95% CI, 0.59, 0.94) and lower dietary glycemic index (dGI, < 75.2 vs. ≥ 81.5) (HR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.60, 0.96) were associated with lower risk for advanced AMD progression. This protection was particularly profound in AREDS ‘antioxidants’ users for EPA (HR = 0.51, 95% CI, 0.32, 0.81; Ptrend = 0.02) and in AREDS ‘zinc only’ users for dGI (HR = 0.56, 95% CI, 0.36, 0.89; Ptrend = 0.01). Participants consuming lower dGI and higher DHA or EPA had the lowest risk (P for synergistic interaction < 0.001). Only participants in the ‘placebo’ (P for antagonistic interaction = 0.006) benefited from higher DHA intake against early AMD progression (HR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.37, 0.92; Ptrend = 0.01).

Conclusions: : Our findings suggest consuming a diet rich in DHA for early AMD prevention. For people at risk of advanced AMD, in addition to the AREDS supplement lower dGI accompanied with higher intakes of DHA and EPA may provide the best protection.

Clinical Trial: : www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00000145

Keywords: age-related macular degeneration • clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: treatment/prevention assessment/controlled clinical trials • lipids 
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